Preliminary research

Research diary

24th  June 2014

Over the previous two weeks I had began researching into different areas of the video game world and began looking through subject areas that interested me one in particular was the ongoing discussions regarding the what games are, some tilt toward them being a collection of different art forms creating a piece of interactive entertainment others see it as a new art form in and of itself as it uses other art form in it’s own unique way.

What are games

https://interactions.acm.org/archive/view/march-april-2014/beyond-video-games-for-social-change

women, culture, in games

http://www.npr.org/blogs/alltechconsidered/2014/06/15/322117682/aisha-tyler-tells-us-the-real-problem-with-gaming-and-diversity

games never art

http://www.rogerebert.com/rogers-journal/video-games-can-never-be-art

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K9y6MYDSAww#t=92

games as art form

http://gac.sagepub.com/content/1/1/58.abstract

opinions on games as art form

http://www.slc.edu/magazine/lost-found/2013-03-15-are-video-games-art-mag.html

An early attempt to defend the notion of games as art can be found in Chris Crawford’s book The Art of Computer Game Design ,Salen and Zimmerman, in their new and very useful textbook Rules of Play, provide an annotated bibliography and a discussion of a handful of attempts at defining video game. A notable attempt can be found in The Medium of the Video Game, where Mark Wolf presents a set of conditions he thinks necessary for something to be a video game: rules, conflict, valued outcome, and player ability. The notion that videogames require rules has become something of a dogma in the literature, but it seems that a complete videogame cannot provide rules proper

http://www.aesthetics-online.org/articles/index.php?articles_id=26

Are Games Art? (Here We Go Again / Proffwsional opinions ( Chris Crawford’s book The Art of Computer Game Design )

http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/130113/are_games_art_here_we_go_.php?print=1

25th June 2014

finding the game theory, it discussion the implications of the basic concept that drive players of play, moving on from this I began looking at how we interact with games and what element  make a games up at its very core.

Game theory,” Elements of a Game

There are three main elements of a game:

  • The players.
  • The strategies of each player.
  • The consequences (payoffs) for each player for every possible profile of strategy choices of all players.                                   http://www.watchcartoononline.com/the-simpsons-season-24-episode-6-a-tree-grows-in-springfield  love in paintingshttp://arthistoryblogger.blogspot.co.uk/2012/11/a-painting-within-painting-hidden.htmlexample of painting with meaningshttp://totallyhistory.com/art-history/famous-paintings/6th July 2014Before going any further I think it is essential first to define what is considered art.  What specific features a piece of work must have to be considered as actual art work.  When we think about art in the world around us, we see many things classed as art, from dance to street vandalism.
  • Simpson episode homer get my pad (s24,ep6) not losing hope
  • Moving away from games I wanted to start looking a paintings and other media’s of art that have deeper meanings and came across many pieces and explanation of the meaning place into them by their respective artists. Oddly enough I found a very interesting one while watch an episode of Simpson where Homer had left himself a message saying hope, watching this the message of this episode was about never losing hope.
  • 5th July 2014
  • http://www.space.com/26090-video-games-as-art-or-merchandise.html
  • games merchendice or art
  • http://www.theguardian.com/technology/gamesblog/2012/dec/06/video-games-as-art
  • video game are art, games have no artist so no point toward art.
  • http://uk.ign.com/articles/2013/03/21/art-of-video-games-exhibit-explores-the-meaning-of-games
  • Games as art
  • Today I wanted to look directly if video games are art and found a wide array of information both for and against it some believed that since there is not one artist putting a meaning on it cannot be consider art, others suggest that meanings in game are interpreted by the viewer as intended by the developers as they would just like an artistic piece.
  • 4th July 2014
  • http://frictionalgames.blogspot.co.uk/2010/02/exploring-deeper-meaning-in-games.html
  • are deeper meanings good?
  • http://www.gamesradar.com/top-7-video-game-levels-hidden-meanings/
  • deeper meanings levels, alice madness return doll maker making mutated dolls + him warpping innocent girls, Catherine game = insecurity and fear of commitment, level design of block are layed out as unpredictable like relationship and no on right way to solve puzzle. Pyschonaught looking into mind of character look through worlds as metaphors deeper meaning must be piece together.
  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OvLui-L2Noo
  • Ico, Caleb Lawson , ‘…move me to tears’
  • http://archive.gamedev.net/archive/reference/articles/article1035.html
  • Art if form of personal experssion, “Some philosophers may also claim that works of art perform a social function.  Edmund Burke Feldman states that this is true when “it is created to be seen or used primarily in public situations [or] expresses or describes social or collective aspects of existence as opposed to individual and personal kinds of experience “
  • Today in wanted to look into the deeper meaning that some games have, in my finding I found that video games stirred strong emotions in some players in games such as ICO, however not all of these meaning were placed in on purpose where as some games such as alice madness return have put meanings into their game.
  • 2nd July 2014
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-28923671
  • video games are sports? What is clear game are evolving e.g sport ice skating, history education/simulation
  • http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/viewFile/1491/677
  • video game are more than they are but dogging whether they are an art form or not
  • http://americanart.si.edu/exhibitions/archive/2012/games/
  • what are video game, with this as a basis I can look through the reference  to follow up more solid leads
  • looking through today I wanted to look into how video games are seen and what they could have the potential to be, in my findings I have come across some interesting information, that a lot commenting on the status of video games as art often dodge the question but all seem to agree video games are evolving
  • 29th June 2014
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-28209006
  • william digital danger / making new art instruments, making new and different art
  • Today I began looking for example of modern art but came across some interesting information, specifically in a small recording musician Will-i-am talks about how for an exhibit created music but taking that one step forward made instruments to make the sound effectively creating a new form of art.
  • 28th June 2014
  • Listing what gamers feel from playing, this could be used to compare to feelings art can make us feel.
  • http://sociology.about.com/od/Sociological-Theory/a/Game-Theory.htm
  • Though not related to video games directly the basic premises of this theory are eve present in games.  “
  1.  http://courses.washington.edu/art120/w2-2_notes.pdf
  2. Breakdown of art
  1.    7th July 2014 As discussed briefly above yesterday, art comes in many forms.  In this section I want to briefly look at different forms.  However, this is a rather large area and I will be focusing on Digital media/art more. Interestingly I found a link listing the types of art form and found one called mixed media which is a collection of art which video games fit into perfectally.Lists various forms of arthttp://www.ownart.org.uk/how-to-start/exploring-different-art-forms/
  2.  
  3. http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2010/07/23/what-do-we-really-mean-by-art/
  4. What is art?,The evolution of the concept of art, Aesthetics of art, Art as we know it today, New media revolution and its relationship to artists
  1. http://edu.moca.org/education/curric/media
  1.     Today while going through I thought about how art is seen in general, is it as an objective thing. Something outside of ourselves.  We rarely consider the effect it has on us as human beings.  It is interesting to consider how an audience reacts to art and how this affects them on an emotional and mental level.I found this link interesting as performance art can be seen as a sport but it is classified as an art form.
  2. http://www.performance-art-research.de/texts/audience-as-participant_helge-meyer.pdf
  3. 13th July 2014
  4. http://www.britishcouncil.org/arts-artforms.htm
  5. This link looks at how the British Council work with different art forms
  1.    Date: 22nd July 2014  http://www.ownart.org.uk/how-to-start/exploring-different-art-forms/ http://edu.moca.org/education/curric/media –  This link looks at how the British Council work with different art forms, such as:-  Creative Economy-  Film-  Music Date:6th August 2014
  2. To an Artist, their work is not just simply their work.  At least, not always.  Some part of the Artist is captured in their creation.  Deeper meanings.  These are all influenced by the times, their surroundings, environments and society itself.  At times Artists are known to speak to their audience.  A need to get some message across. Or do we as the audience see what we want?
  3. –  Visual Arts
  4. –  Literature
  5. –  Drama & Dance
  6. –  Architecture, Design, Fashion
  7. http://www.britishcouncil.org/arts-artforms.htm
  8. – Lists various forms of art
  9. As discussed briefly above on my last research day, art comes in many forms.  In this section, different forms will be observed.  However, this is a rather large area and concentration later on in this research will be focused on Digital media/art.
  10.  
  11. http://www.gamesforchange.org/2013/07/from-interaction-to-impact-3-games-that-engage-players-in-3-different-ways/
  12. Did the player learn something?, Did the player feel something?, Did the player do something?
  1. http://www.oddee.com/item_98643.aspx
  2. 10 famous paintings with hidden codes.
  1. http://www.scotsman.com/what-s-on/theatre-comedy-dance/joyce-mcmillan-on-political-messages-in-art-1-3350230
  2.             ‘The problem with the arts, though, is that although it’s possible to make hopeful    generalisations about the conditions that promote good work, in the end there really are no rules. In the past ten           days in Scottish theatre, I’ve seen one             stunning piece of international work clearly aimed at         exposing the background to        the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, one excellent play from West    Yorkshire           Playhouse designed to promote empathy and understanding for young             unaccompanied asylum-seekers . . . Yet none of them is “bad art”, or mere            propaganda . . .             Artists should always be wary, of course, of being harnessed to   other people’s social or political   causes. Yet where the cause chimes with      something true to the artist’s own experience . . .then art with an obvious purpose can sometimes rank with the very best; and has a chance to prove itself pure, dead             or brilliant, alongside every other creative effort in our bustling cultural landscape. ‘
  1. http://www.buzzfeed.com/jeremybender/plastic-jesus-urges-la-to-think
  2.             Street art with powerful messages
  1. http://www.inplaceofwar.net/various-political-messages-through-art
  2.             Images – Political messages through art
  1. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=x117vFdRJ3oC&pg=PA13&lpg=PA13&dq=messages+through+art&source=bl&ots=CC881L-vtg&sig=EAPCnkSDJ95BO79SOq9iBXyZhHI&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dhYCVOTtK_SO7AbMx4DgDQ&ved=0CEgQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=messages%20through%20art&f=false            Date: 7th August 2014
  2. Video games have come a long way in the past thirty years or so.  However, no one would have ever considered the fact that video games maybe a form of art back then.  Even today, it is a much debated subject.  Yet one can see where those who believe it to be true come from; not simply ascetically but in a literary sense also.
  3.             EXTRACT – Art and its Messages – Meaning, morality and society – Edited by Stephen   Davies
  1. http://www.theguardian.com/technology/gamesblog/2014/jan/08/video-games-art-and-the-shock-of-the-new
  2.             ‘. . . games aren’t art and that we shouldn’t care. “Electronic games offer a rich and            spectacular entertainment,” he declares, correctly, “but why do they need to be           anything more than fun? Why does everything have to be art?”‘
  1. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/the-art-of-video-games-101131359/?no-ist
  2. http://www.theverge.com/2013/12/18/5222932/smithsonian-adds-flower-halo-2600-to-permanent-collection
  3.             TWO article discussing video games as art as a new exhibition at the Smithsonian in the USA displays two games it is calling ART – FLOWER & HALO 2600
  1. http://www.theweek.co.uk/games/57458/video-games-are-art-and-its-time-they-got-their-own-oscars
  2.             Article discussing games should be classified as an art form like films and deserve awards         too.
  1. http://www.cracked.com/blog/5-things-video-games-do-better-than-any-other-forms-art/  Date: 22nd August 2014         http://eamesdesigns.com/library-entry/the-purpose-of-design/http://www.rowan.edu/open/philosop/clowney/Aesthetics/philos_artists_onart/plato.htmhttp://www.aiga.org/art-vs-design/
  2. Date: 27th October 2014
  3. THE GREATEST ART FORM, BRETT E. MULLANEY, p13, “In reality, art simply cannot exist without technology, and as a result, art is, and will continue to be, both complicated and exponentially expanded by the advent of ne technologies.”
  4. Having Purchased a book that covers the issue I want to discus help get an external perspective to the issue I wanted to cove but also gave more focus in the direction I wanted to take with this.
  5. Date: 26th October 2014
  6. http://radar.oreilly.com/2014/04/the-evolving-purpose-of-design.html
  7. http://radar.oreilly.com/2014/04/the-evolving-purpose-of-design.html
  8. http://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2009/09/the-difference-between-art-and-design/
  9. Today tried looking into art and design to see what their fundamental differences were  if there were any and found that there is a stark difference between them but often they a referred to as one and the same.
  10. Date: 12th September 2014
  11. http://www.psmag.com/culture/are-video-games-the-next-great-artform-58300/
  12. http://www.lrb.co.uk/v31/n01/john-lanchester/is-it-art
  13. http://www.salon.com/2010/06/20/tom_bissell_extra_lives_interview_ext2010/
  14. Painting started off as scratches, evolved
  15. Lara craft designed meaning purpose- art piece have purpose
  16. Digital Art.  A canopy under which many modern forms of art are classified.
  17.             Interesting article on how video games as an art form are better than traditional forms of art,        especially in regards of to the audience.

Looking through a book online I found a complex attempt to understand the nature of design but after three attempts to read through the text I finally understood it but what was key

“Designing with nature, on the other hand, disciplines human inten- tions with the growing knowledge of how the world works as a phys- ical system. The goal is not total mastery but harmony that causes no ugliness, human or ecological, somewhere else or at some later time. And it is not just about making things, but rather remaking the human presence in the world in a way that honors life and protects human dignity. Ecological design is a large concept that joins science and the practical arts with ethics, politics, and economics. “

http://www.naturalthinker.net/trl/texts/Orr,David/Oxford%20University%20Press%20-%20The%20Nature%20of%20Design%20-%20Ecology,%20Culture%20and%20Human%20Intention%20(2002).pdf

Date: 27th October 2014

Reading through these books allowed me to get a better understanding of the more complex issue around the matter if video games can be art but looking at thnkers such as Marcel Duchamp and Andy Warhol gave me a lot to think on

Book: What is art, by Leo Tolstoy, Chap 5, Art purpose is to convey the creators feeling and views “… it is upon this capacity of man to receive another man’s expression of feeling and experience those feelings himself, that the activity of art is based “

http://www.csulb.edu/~jvancamp/361r14.html

Book: Art Matters by Peter de Bolla,  Pg15, Agrees the “….the great value of art lies in its power to prompt us to share experiences, worlds, beliefs, and differences.”

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=yzlmD5FAKlcC&pg=PA15&lpg=PA15&dq=peter+de+bolla+view+the+great+value+of+art+lies+in+its+power&source=bl&ots=JFJI6Nn4FG&sig=QTNDiIT6B_1D0MlKgehzkpyuRjY&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KfJMVNvgDtHB7Abk4ID4Cw&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=peter%20de%20bolla%20view%20the%20great%20value%20of%20art%20lies%20in%20its%20power&f=false

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/duch/hd_duch.htm

http://www.warhol.org/collection/aboutandy/biography/

Philosophy Looks at the Arts: Contemporary Readings in Aesthetics  P64 “incompatibility of property between works of art and physical objects’

http://bjaesthetics.oxfordjournals.org/content/14/3/187.full.pdf

Date: 28th October 2014

Looking for a more refine definition of design I search for books a came across what is design? Which was a very useful book as it gave example of piece when trying to make point .

Book: what is Product Design? By Laura Slack, p6, “Design is a form of expression and products are a currency for exchange.”

“Product design is a generic term for the creation of an object that originates from design ideas-in the form of drawings, sketches, prototypes, or models-through a process of design that can extend into the object’s production, logistics, and marketing.”

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